Energy Efficiency
27 September 2022

PV has become an important solution for addressing environmental issues, improving sustainability, and reducing energy consumption. However, the installation of a PV system can lead to significant power quality problems, which may require protective measures and cause the system to shut down. In this article, we will explore the main problems caused by inverters in the PV system and the importance of proper rephasing to ensure optimal energy efficiency.

Mains voltage variations

Inverters, as power generators, can cause instability in the supply voltage under certain conditions. For this reason, grid operators require the installation of an interface relay that disables PV operation when conditions are not compatible with the grid to which it is connected. This measure is necessary to avoid power quality problems and ensure the safety and reliability of the PV system.

Power factor degradation

Another common problem caused by inverters in the PV system is power factor degradation. The active component taken from the grid is lower than the reactive component, which leads to a decrease in the overall power factor. This situation leads to the risk of penalties on the energy bill and can generate several issues related to low cosφ. Therefore, it is essential to equip the system with adequate power factor correction to compensate for these discrepancies and ensure proper energy balancing.

Power factor correction solutions and transformers

The use of power factor correction solutions and transformers becomes essential. Rephasers allow the power factor to be corrected, thus reducing the risk of penalties and problems associated with low cosφ. Transformers, on the other hand, ensure proper regulation of the grid voltage, reducing variations and improving the stability of the PV system.
The installation of a photovoltaic system has many advantages in terms of sustainability and energy savings. However, it is important to properly address power quality issues generated by inverters to ensure proper operation and maximum efficiency of the system. The use of power factor correction solutions and transformers proves essential to correct voltage variations and power factor degradation, ensuring optimal energy balancing and reduced energy costs. Making sure to install a proper power factor correction system and using quality transformers is critical to effectively address these challenges.
In addition, it is important to point out that power quality problems do not only affect PV systems, but can also occur in other industrial settings. The use of inverters and other electronic equipment can cause disturbances on the power grid, compromising the quality of the power supplied.

Installation of active and passive filters

To further improve power quality and ensure optimal plant operation, it is advisable to take mitigation measures such as installing active or passive filters, which reduce harmonics and distortions in the network. These solutions result in a more stable and reliable power supply, protecting both the plant itself and other grid users.
In addition to power factor correction solutions and transformers, another aspect to consider is the importance of periodic plant maintenance. Carrying out regular checks and inspections on the quality of the energy drawn from the grid can help to detect anomalies early and take the necessary corrective measures.
In conclusion, PV offers an excellent solution for improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact. However, it is critical to address the power quality issues associated with inverter installation. Using power factor correction solutions and transformers, along with mitigation measures and proper maintenance, can ensure reliable system operation and maximize energy benefits.